In large organizations, managers are also distinguished by the scope of activities the manage. Functional managers are responsible for departments that perform a single functional tasks. They supervise employees with specialized skills in a single area of operation, such as accounting, personnel, payroll, finance, marketing, advertising, and manufacturing. General managers are responsible for the overall operation of a more complex unit, such as a company or a division. Project managers also have general management responsibility, because they coordinate employees across several departments to accomplish a specific project.
Mintzberg's observations and research indicate that diverse manager activities can be organized into ten roles. For an important starting point, all ten rules are vested with formal authority over an organizational unit. From formal authority comes status, which leads to various interpersonal relations, and from these comes access to information, which, in turn, enables the manager to make decisions and strategies.
The ten roles are divided into three categories: interpersonal, informational, and decisional.