Strategic Management: Formulation and Implementation


In This chapter I have presented an overall view of management.

First, I introduced a number of important concepts about management. Organizations, and therefore management and managers, are essential to society. Management is the process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling an organizationís resources to achieve organizational goals in an efficient and effective manner. All managers, systematic, interrelated ser of activities designed to achieve these goals. Effective management is essential to the health of an organization. Constant change gives management a dynamic dimension. Most managers have ten basic roles to play, including three interpersonal roles (figurehead, leader, and liaison), three informational roles (monitor, disseminator, and spokesperson), and four decisional roles (entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resources allocator, and negotiator). I identified a set of skills that managers need to perform their roles.

Those skills include conceptual, human, technical, diagnostic, and political skills. Managers in the future will need greater human skill as well as conceptual skills. Management skills may be acquired through education (formal course-word and continuing education) and experience. Management principles are universal to all types of organizations (e.g., business organizations, governmental organizations, health care organizations, and churches).

Second, I have attempted to provide an overview of approaches to management thought. Four major forces that affect management are social, political, economic, and technological. Three primary schools of management the classical approach, the behavioral approach, and the management approach. The other two approaches of thought are referred to as the contingency and the systems approach. Each of these viewpoints of management has its proponents and can be very useful in the appropriate situation. The most recent trend in management has been to adopt Japanese management practices and the renewed efforts to achieve excellence in North American organizations.

Understanding the evolution of management can managers avoid repeating the mistakes of others and continue to progress toward better management.