There are three process approaches to strategic planning: strategic negotiations, logical incrementalism, and strategic planning as a framework for innovation.
Several writers view corporate strategy as the partial resolution of organizational issues through a highly political process (Pettigrew 1977; Mintzberg and Waters 1985). Strategic negotiations are very much contextually based, as strategy is viewed as the flow of actions and values embedded in a context.
The strength of a negotiation approach is that it recognizes the power is shared in most public situations; no one person, group, or organization is "in charge," and cooperation and negotiation with others is often necessary in order for people, groups, and organizations to achieve their ends.
The main weakness of negotiation approaches is that although they can show planners how to reach politically acceptable results, they are not very helpful in assuring technical workability or democratic responsibility of results (Fisher and Ury 1981).